Wednesday, June 30, 2021

Evolution of a Central Banker - 2012-2021

 I wouldn't want to be a central banker for anything in the world. Just imagine: the whole world is hanging on your every word – indeed, every facial expression – to see how the economy will fare in the coming months. And look what such a job can do to your smile....

[Click on the image for a larger version]

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Monday, May 10, 2021

Youthful Infatuation with the Climate Mystery

 The climate gurus and the virtuous young are trying to lead us somewhere. I just wish I knew where.

[Drawing by Kate Greenaway, 1888, illustration for Robert Browning's The Pied Piper of Hamelin]

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Friday, May 07, 2021

The Economics of Socialism: A Primer for Young Adults

A young friend recently asked me for my opinion of socialism. She and I both admit that the theory sounds so appealing to idealistic youth. She told me she thinks it isn't realistic, but she doesn't have the necessary ammunition to use in debates. So here are some thoughts about socialism:

Underlying premises

Humans are a social species, and most people are instinctively caring

Source: Neuroscience News

We are empathetic towards animals and people who seem to be suffering. On a family level, we usually try to help a relative who has special needs. Some go above and beyond and create charitable nonprofits with a mission to help others. Take the examples of the Red Cross, the Salvation Army, or the many churches that organize activities to help locals. 

Also, most people also have an innate sense of fairness and of the universality of basic human rights. For example, every person should have an equal right to life, to a maximum of liberty, to be able to speak one’s mind, to worship freely, to own things and land, and to be treated equally under the law. 

At the same time, God, or Nature if one is not religious, has made each of us distinct from one another. We are not equal. We do not all have the same talents or strengths or weaknesses. We do the jobs that we can do, and we earn our living as best we can. 

Obviously, some people can do or create things that provide tremendous benefits for everyone. Steve Jobs or Sam Walton come to mind. As a result, our free society and the market economy give them more income than the rest of us. "Equity," i.e. equal income (as it is interpreted today), is not natural. And this seems acceptable when everyone has a job and things are going well. However, sometimes things get tough, and people begin to feel that rich people are way too rich. (This has an economic explanation, but that will be for another day.)

The socialist proposal

For those reasons, when a politician comes along spreading the notion that we should all be "equal" in lifestyle, and that government can create programs to take care of the needy, to make life more comfortable for the less talented, and to spread around the wealth more "equitably," we tend to feel that it might be a good idea. Plus it seems logical that government should be able to centralize charitable efforts and therefore be more efficient. In fact, this sounds pretty great.

The problems

As it happens, however, there are several problems with this notion:

1.  Forced taxation without verification: Unlike nonprofits, which can survive only if they receive enough voluntary donations from a generous but discriminating public, governments can force taxpayers to contribute. And this is true no matter how well or poorly run the government programs are. 

Furthermore, the distribution centers required by national programs are dispersed all over the country, and the financing and management are not easily visible. This means that the taxpayer has no real way to verify whether any particular government program is well run or even successful without a great deal of effort. With private and sometimes locally run nonprofits, donors can watch the finances and judge the results to help them decide whether to give or not. But taxpayers do not have that facility. As a result, government programs:

a. tend to become bloated, wasteful, and inefficient;

b. very often cause more harm than good (see examples below); and

c. distort the financial equilibrium of the economic relationships surrounding the activity. Example: Medicare establishes the prices of certain medical interventions and drugs at lower than market level. This in turn encourages hospitals and doctors to increase their prices for private payers, such as insurance companies and individuals without insurance, just to make up the difference. (This partly explains the high cost of medical care and drugs in the US.)

2.  Lost charitable-giving incentive: Potential donors to private charities, believing they have already “contributed” to these government programs, decide to reduce their giving to charities, and the charities reduce their activities, either for lack of money or of “customers.”

3.  Psychological damage to beneficiaries: Receivers of benefits come to believe that they deserve help from the government and that what they receive is not charity. Often they begin to doubt their own capacity to improve their lot in life. Example: Benefits for unwed mothers encourage some parents not to marry, often leaving the mother with most of the personal and financial care of their children. It might be quite normal for such a mother to begin to believe that she doesn’t deserve to have a faithful husband, a father figure for her children and family co-caretaker, and that she cannot provide for her children without the help of government handouts.

4.  Abusive taxation: Taxes must rise to cover the government programs. Taxpayers begin to resent the forced and excessive taxation, especially when their total tax burden rises above 17-20 percent, statisticians have found. As a result, they find ways to hide their income, move it offshore, or perhaps simply decide to earn less. As a result, no additional taxes are collected, and everyone’s standard of living decreases as less work is done across the nation.

5.  Conflict of interest: Even without increased tax revenue, governments do bring in lots of money, and because they don’t have to watch their expenses or make a profit like an ordinary company, they start increasing the number of employees and creating lots more agencies to handle all the additional duties we have given them. Congress votes themselves and their employees raises and extra benefits that most companies couldn't afford. After all, they don’t have a “bottom line” to prevent them from overspending our money, and in the case of the federal government, no balanced-budget requirement forces expense control. As a result, the nation (i.e. the collective "we") starts to go into debt.

6.  Corruption: Politicians realize they have become powerful and can manage huge sums of money, sometimes in favor of their own constituents, which in turn helps with reelection. This encourages corruption. You have perhaps heard the dictum: Power corrupts; absolute power corrupts absolutely. This dangerous combination of power and money starts to attract unsavory types who crave power. Some can become so powerful they start to act like little dictators. (Andrew Cuomo is a good example.)

These are some of the unintended consequences of excessive government size and control. The charitable actions could be better and more efficiently performed by smaller, more localized groups, but the more the federal government tries to interfere, the greater the unintended consequences. It can get so bad that the whole country suffers. 

The French case in point

For example, in the 1970s the French people voted for a socialist government that put in place a number of seemingly helpful redistributive programs. These included, among other things, the imposition on companies of strict employment contracts with expensive conditions for letting employees go; generous unemployment benefits; healthcare for everyone; and free education up to the university level for everyone who can pass a certain test. (Sound familiar? This is what Bernie Sanders, Kamala Harris, and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez want for America.)

Rigid employment contracts

What has been the result? Companies, handicapped by the strict terms of the employment contracts, hire fewer employees. Small entrepreneurs may no longer risk opening a business at all because it’s too expensive. Employees who are hired must work harder. The labor market becomes imbalanced, now favoring employers over employees because there are more people looking for work. In France today, hundreds sometimes apply for one position. Since candidates are desperate, this means that employers can offer lower wages and make people work harder. This is exactly the opposite consequence from what was intended, isn’t it?

Generous unemployment benefits

French unemployment hasn’t gone below 6 percent since the 1970s when they began their socialist experiment. Today it’s at 8 percent, and it has been up to 11 percent and more. Some even say that governments have an incentive to fudge those numbers as well – I can attest to the fact that many potential unemployed are either in some kind of useless training program (a "stage de formation") or are still in school well beyond their scholastic aptitude. See below for the official statistics since 1968. (The word “ans” means age. The graph shows total unemployment [red] and unemployment according to age group. The blue one is 15-24 year-olds.)

French Unemployment

And another thing: Generous unemployment benefits encourage recipients to hold off looking for work as long as they can. It’s such a painful process and so many people apply for the few open jobs that the chances of finding work are low. "Why bother? I’ll just wait until my benefits run out. And anyway, I paid into the system so I deserve to take advantage of it.” 

And for those who still can’t find a job after a year or more of inactivity, there is something called the “Revenu de solidarité active.” This translates to “Active Solidarity Income” and resembles “Universal Basic Income,” another great-sounding but counterproductive idea of BS, KH, and AOC, which the current US government would love to put in place.

Universal healthcare

Healthcare for everyone sounds wonderful. But what actually happens is that people start going to the doctor or the emergency room for anything and everything. Sometimes they don’t have to lay out any money at all, or at worst a small percentage of a very low fee. Everyone knows that lower prices mean more buyers. All one has to do is to offer something for free to find out how many takers will appear out of nowhere. (Strangely enough, even one penny seems to make all the difference in the world! I know this from an experiment I once did on Craigslist.)

On the other side, the government budget for healthcare has become underfunded because of the above, and also due to poor management (see higher above). Plus the socialist French government decided to limit the number of medical students. Today, this means not enough doctors, and very poor pay. 

The work environment for nurses and other hospital personnel has become insufferable, with many hours of overtime, sometimes unpaid. The collective result is a worsening quality of care, difficulty finding employees, and a limitation on the services and facilities. I have noticed a substantial reduction in the quality of care in France since I first arrived in the 1970s. It may seem cheaper, but in the longer run the system is visibly self-destructing and eventually will fail.

Free college education

And what about education? Just as in the US, public school teaching quality has diminished substantially. Nationalized curriculums and unionized teachers have produced a real tragedy in the quality of education in both countries. To improve the statistics (but not the quality), the nationalized tests have gotten easier. Almost all French teenagers pass the “bac” exam permitting them to go to college. 

Although in the US many students go into debt (which is another tragedy with a different economic cause), in France university schooling is free. On the other hand, there are so many students that the universities are overcrowded. And many students (similar to the US) end up quitting in frustration after a year or two. They have not gotten any alternative training, so they have basically wasted those years of their life. Or they graduate with degrees and high expectations that don’t guarantee them a job. Although French students don’t go into debt themselves (unless they or their parents need it to pay for food and lodging), the government (i.e. the people) accumulates the debt instead. 

The financing trap

To finance all of these goodies, taxes are incredibly high in France, both on income and on anything and everything else. Examples: almost everyone pays income tax, but also a 20 percent tax on many things they buy; there are huge taxes on gasoline, which almost triple the price at the pump (as of today, $2.95/gal US versus $8.05/gal France); taxes on one’s real property exists just as in the US, but also another tax just for living in a home (called a “taxe d’habitation”); payroll taxes increase the employer’s payout over 150 percent and lower the employee’s take-home pay by about a third; and on and on. 

Typical French payroll statement in 2016:

Gross salary €1,660.67 + overtime €237.19 = €1,897.86

Taxes paid by employer over and above gross €565.58

Taxes paid by employee from gross €378.23 + €19.63 = €397.86

Net salary of employee €1,500

Total cost to employer €2,463.44

Ratio employer cost to net salary = €2,463.44 / €1,500 = 1.642


Eventually, this situation must come to a crisis. And indeed, there have been more and more frequent protests by ordinary people whose standard of living is decreasing, some of whom can no longer afford to pay for the necessities of life. These protests stopped a bit with the virus, but they will start up again as soon as people are more comfortable about going out, especially after the end of the summer vacation period. (Did you hear about the French “yellow vest” protestors in 2019?)

The paradox

You would think the French people would wake up and see the source of the problem, but many of them cling to their fantasy about socialistic redistribution schemes. There are a number of political parties, but only a few would attempt to change the generous fundamentals, and these parties are not popular. It is a situation that will come to a very bad denouement within the next decade or two, in my opinion. 

Clearly, every country that tries a high degree of socialism must eventually either fall into poverty and civil unrest, or liberate the economy from its chains. Some Scandinavian countries have been able to turn back, such as Sweden and Denmark. Others like Venezuela – which used to be a very rich country – have fallen to the bottom of the heap and now experience extensive poverty, lack everything including basic necessities like toilet paper and food, and are approaching civil collapse.

Impossible dream or Machiavellian ruse?

Why don’t people see these obvious signs of failure? Socialism has never been successful anywhere in the world, and without exception the more a country adopts it, the worse off things become. I think it is simply because people vote with their emotions – from their gut – and don’t take the time to study reality. Plus they are easily cowed and then stirred up by ambitious politicians – a sort of maddening of the crowd. And finally, the emotions can run very strong and very deep, almost as if changing one’s mind is dishonorable, or would mean rejection by one's peers, or even might be fatal.

As for the politicians, I must believe that they are innocently enamored of their fantastical but naive beliefs. Otherwise, the alternative is that they know the truth but prefer to advocate for personal gain, civil unrest, and social collapse, figuring “après moi, le déluge” (“after I’m gone, let the flood waters rise”) as Louis XV is supposed to have said a few years before the French Revolution.

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Tuesday, February 09, 2021

What is the Real Situation regarding Unemployment?

Finally! An interesting chart about the unemployment situation from the most important point of view, i.e. labor force participation rate. Of course, we might need to examine what they’re using as “labor force,” but this is the first time I’ve seen this so well illustrated. 

And who knew it was highest under Clinton and was only beginning to improve under Trump. In other words, it still had a long way to go. That was news to me.

Source: AIER via InflationData

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Wednesday, January 13, 2021

Financial Pointers for a Teenager

As a followup to my previous post, parents have been asking for pointers for their kids who will soon want to become more financially independent. Here is what I would tell these youngsters:

Thanks to Funny Everyday for the image.

Eight Steps to Financial Maturity

Step One

If you haven’t done so already, find a way to get your first experiences with being employed and receiving a paycheck, even if it’s part time or short term. There’s nothing like getting paid for work to give you some profound financial understanding. You'll also need to open a checking account, and why not also a savings account at the same time. We'll talk about those shortly.

When you do get your first paycheck, take a look at your salary and how the final amount is calculated. You will see that your employer pays out quite a bit more money than you receive. This is because he is paying the federal and state taxes that apply to your situation.

If someone tries to tell you that it is the employer who is paying those taxes, you should know that he would very likely pay you more if those taxes were not obligatory. More about this someday if you have questions about it.

Step Two

Once you have opened your bank accounts, be sure you have learned how to balance your checkbook, and keep your savings account up to date. This means that every time you use your debit card or a check to pay for something, you must write the amount in your checkbook so that you know exactly how much money you have left in the account. Overdrawing on your account will be very expensive. And don’t forget any regular bank expenses such as small maintenance fees, unless your bank offers you an account without any. Be sure to ask the banker about this when you open the accounts.

Step Three

Try to understand a little about the history of money. You may have already seen my little introduction to this. If so, you’re ahead of the game. If not, I would suggest you take a few minutes to understand some basic notions.

Step Four

Do a little reality exercise as follows: Get out some paper and make a list of your expenses during each day. Do this every day, and I mean every single day, and every single penny. Don’t worry, it doesn’t take more than 30 seconds.

The justification is this:  I don’t think there’s a human alive who doesn’t arrive at the end of the month wondering where the money went. Some even get paranoid and think somebody must have stolen it! And that’s probably not the case. We simply spend way more than we think, because small expenditures add up over time.

Step Five

Once you have gotten into the habit of doing this for about a month, prepare a neat page with columns and rows. Then take a look at your listed items. What are the major categories of your expenses? Examples might be Starbucks (it's amazing how much kids spend at Starbucks), clothing, drugstore items, gifts, rent, food, school-related, transportation, eventually vacation, insurance, taxes, things of this sort. Then add a column for miscellaneous, and another for savings.

Now: Every evening, put your daily expenses under one of the columns. By doing this little chore on a daily basis you will begin to see how to set up what’s called a budget. It will help you become conscious of how much you are spending and where you might be able to change your spending habits. 

Later in life, this little discipline will come in handy when you have a family to organize, or other plans. It will put you solidly in control of your finances. (Here's a nice little nonprofit that sells a neat budget booklet that will facilitate this for you.)

Step Six

You will be tempted soon, if not already, to sign up for a credit card. Keep in mind that savings are your friend, and credit (actually debt) is your enemy. As a youngster, you start out with no credit at all, but at some point you will find it important to have a good credit record. The best way to get a card is through a store like Walmart. Later you will be able to apply for other types of cards.


Credit cards are devilish. They encourage you to spend more than you can earn, or receive as allowance. You will be allowed to go into debt if you promise to pay the card company back over time, assuming the card company believes you. But the hitch is that they will try to take a huge amount of money for this service, sometimes up to 14-26% annual interest. And they’re sneaky, because they’ll only ask for a small sum every month. You should understand that they do that because they get much more of your money this way. You are the obvious loser in this arrangement.

Let’s just try the experiment on our calculator: Enter an amount representing a purchase, say $200. Your credit card will charge you something like 18% annual interest. When the first bill is due, you pay the minimum, for example, $10. You now owe $190 plus $2.85 for the interest. The next month you pay $10, and you now owe $182.85 plus $2.74. Keep doing that until the whole debt is paid off. Two years later, you will have paid the $200, plus another $70.64. That’s 35% more than the original price!

And the worst part is that while you’re paying the minimum amount every month, you think you still have lots more credit to spend, and if you're not smart you probably will spend it. But obviously that just makes it much worse, since what you owe will increase alongside the interest amount.

Is it really worth it? You could instead have waited a couple of months and saved up enough money to buy whatever it is for the $200. Then you could start saving right away for your next purchase, instead of paying interest to the bank.

Believe it or not, many Americans have several credit cards that they are paying off all the time. This means they are constantly indebted to some bank, and many have no savings at all. Sometimes they are late in paying even the minimum, and the bank charges them horrendous late fees. I doubt these people have ever taken the time to calculate how much money they are paying for the privilege of getting themselves into debt. A few get into so much debt that they can’t get out of it without some kind of intervention.

If you're going to have credit cards, my recommendation is that you pay off all charges every single month, in total, period. Use the card as a convenient payment device, and not as a magic source of extra money. Do this, and your credit rating will be good. And you will be smarter than 95 percent of humanity.

Be sure to ask your bank to sign you up for smartphone notifications of every expenditure, even small ones. It happens frequently that our credit card or bank card numbers are stolen, and if you catch any improper expenses immediately, you can call the bank and get the charges reversed. But you have to act fast.

Sometimes – very rarely for most of us – credit can be helpful. For example, you may unexpectedly need a car to drive to work or school. If you have a credit card, you might be able to buy a cheap car with it, and then pay off the amount over time. This may actually be something you'd want to do in spite of the extra interest expense. But be sure to calculate all the amounts you will pay, including the interest, to find out the total cost of the car. And of course you want to be certain that you will be able to pay off the debt with whatever income you will be receiving and still have enough money for your other expenses.

Step Seven

Start thinking about saving a little money every month for future need. You will be surprised how often you’ll find something that you’d like to buy but can’t afford. And small savings every month add up surprisingly quickly. I just heard from a friend that her mother started a small savings account in her early 20s with about $25 a month, and by the time she was retiring, it had over $200,000 in the account!

Step Eight

I know it seems too early, but think about eventually preparing for your retirement. You will not be happy in your old age if you don’t have any savings. We tend to be a little nonchalant about this, but when you do get there, you will be very happy to have saved up a good sum of money. You don’t want to count on whatever small benefits the government might have for you some 50 years from now.

When you get to that point where you are saving a good bit of money, perhaps we can discuss how best to invest and protect it over time.

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Monday, January 11, 2021

What Is Money? The Basics Your Teenager Needs to Know

Recently someone asked me to write an explanation of "money" for a teenager. Perhaps you have a youngster who could use such an explanation, so I am publishing it here.

* * * * * * * * *

The Evolution of Money

Once upon a time, people didn’t use money as we know it today. Instead, they exchanged favors for favors, work for work, or items for items, or some other combination.

For example, in the early settlement days of this country, pioneer traders would exchange jewelry, knives, and guns for beaver skins offered by American Indians. Or a baker could exchange ten loaves of bread for a case of apples. Or a friend could help you build your house, and you could help him sow his crops.

But this immediate type of barter exchange is not always convenient, since you may not want to acquire something right this minute. Sometimes you want to buy an item in a different town. Sometimes you may want to get a haircut next week, but not today. So people came up with the notion of “money” as a way to hold on to the compensation for your work, or for the items you sold, so that you could use it later.

Way back in history, this money could take the form of a valuable sea shell, or a cow. In later times it might be a silver coin or two, or a bar of gold. These objects had what's commonly called "intrinsic value," meaning that they were appreciated not just for their value in exchanges, but also for their own beauty and/or utility.

Eventually, the idea of writing a promise of value on a piece of paper became popular, especially in market situations. Because towns evolved to the point where most people didn't necessarily know each other, intermediaries became involved. For example, if you had a lot of coins, this intermediary was someone you could trust who could hold your coins and give you his paper in exchange. Everyone knew this person, so his paper promises were considered valid.

This transaction permitted you to go about your purchases without lugging your coins around or risking them being stolen. This kind of paper money was a kind of claim ticket, a kind of promise of future purchasing power, and the intermediary was actually the first banker.

Today, at some point in your life, what and how many dollars you have will probably depend upon how much your work is valued by the person who hires you. With the paper dollars you receive (or the digital dollars that arrive in your bank account), you can buy things and services. Or if you don’t want to buy anything right away, you can save the dollars so that you will have them for later use.

Three Facets of Money

So we have now described three basic facets of money:

1. Unit of account
2. Means of exchange
3. Store of value

You can easily understand that units of money are a handy way of comparing the prices of things, and that since money is expressed in terms of numbers of currency units (dollars in our case), it can therefore be counted. (No. 1) It can also be spent (No. 2), or it can be saved and invested (No. 3).

How Much of Our Money is Real?

The question arises whether or not paper or digital dollars are a good “store of value” over time. This question would lead us into a discussion of monetary inflating, about which I wrote a few months ago. It's rather complicated, but to make a long story short, the unfortunate truth is that paper or digital money is not always what it appears to be.

Just to give you an idea of what I mean, take a look at this chart of the diminishing value of a U.S. dollar since the beginning of the last century:

I have also prepared another chart and some photos that illustrate this phenomenon here.

It is very important that you realize that what I will call real money can only be those paper and digital claims that truly represent work done and that haven't yet been exchanged for other things or services. (This is an oversimplification, but I think it gets the important message across.) Anything above and beyond that should be called credit.

It used to be that banks were in control of the amount of real paper money and credit that were created. This worked pretty well since they were closer to the actual production of things. Bankers usually knew their clients well.

Unfortunately today, the amount of paper or digital money created in the US is now handled by a government-appointed bureaucracy (the Federal Reserve, or the Fed) that has no idea how much money should be printed to represent work done. In reality, for the past 100 years or so the amount of dollars printed or digitally created is way more than it should be.

Without going into too much detail right now, you do need to understand that any creating of money beyond the total value of work done by everyone represents credit, which is very different from our current definition of money, even though most people use the same name for it. Credit is really debt, and it must be repaid in dollars from future earnings. And credit involves risk. In fact the more credit, the more risk. We could say that credit represents tomorrow's work.

So far, all the real dollars and the credit/debt dollars created by the Fed have been absorbed by our economy and that of other nations. In fact, so much credit/debt exists today above and beyond real dollars that no one really knows how much our Nation has created, nor how much we can increase our debt load. The situation is precarious.

Throughout history this has happened in a number of societies, and it does not end well. Most recently, perhaps you lived through 2009-2010 and remember the hardships some people had to endure when things turned sour. That episode was the beginning of a tremendous crisis caused indirectly by excess credit. It was rescued in extremis by the Fed, at least temporarily, until the next episode.

You can also learn about what happens when things go badly by reading some of the stories of 1929, or of the Roman empire's decline.

If you have questions please don't hesitate to comment below. It will inspire more explanations. Another article is coming soon about handling your finances.

PS: My Dad (Edward C. Harwood, founder of the American Institute for Economic Research) stopped using the word "money" because its meaning has become very slippery, even among academics. He began using the phrase “purchasing media” instead of money, but that is a bit cumbersome for a teenager, so we’ll keep using “money” for now.

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Monday, December 14, 2020

Who Says There's No Price Inflation?

I have a proprietary statistical tool called the M&Ms Price Inflation Index. It's not very sophisticated, nor guaranteed to be 100 percent accurate, but I think it's pretty darn near the real deal.

Here it is, and it's pretty convincing to me.

For those of us who prefer pictures, here is the same information in a different format: (you can click on the photos for a larger format)

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Thursday, June 11, 2020

The June 2020 Covid Conundrum

Is anyone else feeling as confused as I am about our current situation?
Click on image for larger version.


Sunday, May 31, 2020

A Constitutional Moment in History

This Corona virus episode is really disturbing on several fronts. I have tried to evoke one of them with this cartoon.

Click on image for a larger version.

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Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Gold Has Retained Purchasing Power over the past 100 Years

As it happens, I am rereading the masters thesis of my economist father, Edward C. Harwood. He went on later to found the American Institute for Economic Research.

In his thesis, he cites the example of a car factory (this is 1931) that produces 100 cars a week. He gives the value at market of the weekly production at 100 pounds of gold.

In those days, the dollar was calibrated at $20.67 per ounce of gold. That puts the dollar value of the 100 cars at 100 pounds of gold x 16 ounces x $20.67 = $33,072, or $330.72 (in 1931) per vehicle.

Using today's dollar exchange rate with gold, we get the following:

100 x 16 x $1,713 = $2,740,800, which is $27,408 per vehicle.

The average price for a car in the US in 2019 is $36,718 according to Kelley Blue Book. I find that incredibly high, but according to a few articles I have read, this is indeed the average price of a light vehicle. One writer chocks the high price up to high demand and easy credit terms. This is possible, especially when you look at the demand for the bigger SUVs and light trucks.

But my fundamental point is that one can still buy a decent car for about 16 ounces of gold. Here's a 1929 Ford versus a 2020 Subaru.

By Richard Smith - Flickr, CC BY 2.0,

2020 Subaru - same price!

I wish that we could still buy a car for 330.72 dollars! But you certainly can still buy a car for 16 ounces of gold.

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